Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with hypertension in Nigeria; results from a country-wide survey

Adeke A, Chori BS, Neupane D, Sharman JE and Odili AN
Journal of Human Hypertension

With the rising prevalence of hypertension, especially in Africa, understanding the dynamics of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors is key in managing hypertension. To address existing gaps in evidence of these factors, this study was carried out. A cross-sectional survey using a modified WHO STEPS questionnaire was conducted among 3782 adult Nigerians selected from an urban and a rural community in one state in each of the six Nigerian regions. Among participants, 56.3% were women, 65.8% were married, 52.5% resided in rural areas, and 33.9% had tertiary education. Mean ages (SD) were 53.1 ± 13.6 years and 39.2 ± 15.0 years among hypertensive persons and their normotensive counterparts respectively. On lifestyle, 30.7% had low physical activity, 4.1% consumed tobacco currently, and 35.4% consumed alcohol currently. In comparison to unmarried status, being married (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.41–2.50) or widowed (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.36) was significantly associated with hypertension, compared with never married. Compared with no formal education, primary (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12–1.85), secondary (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.81), and tertiary education (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.57–2.60) were associated with hypertension. Low physical activity (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05–1.42), alcohol consumption, (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02–1.37), and unemployment status (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.07–1.88) were also associated with hypertension. Our study indicates an association of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors with hypertension, hence, there is a need for counselling, health education and policy formulation and implementation targeting these factors to prevent and control hypertension.